vietnam war protests r=h:org

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The debates, teach-ins, rallies, and protests that took place on campus are testaments to the abilities of young people to enact meaningful change. But the students all acted from a common belief that the Vietnam War was wrong. These protests were attended by American pacifists commemorating the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of the Second World War. Protests against the Vietnam War did not start when America declared her open involvement in the war in 1964.America rallied to the call of the commander-in-chief and after the Gulf of Tonkin incident it became very apparent that few would raise protests against the decision to militarily support South Vietnam. “2,500 shut down S.B. The events that occurred during these years at UCSB reflected the anger, disappointment, and frustration of students with the U.S government’s decisions. It was during this period that widespread disillusionment with the war began reaching the general American public. David Arnold’s Sociology 128 class about the war in Vietnam, non-violence, and taking political action. This event angered many students who felt that these violent protests were unjustified, as demonstrated by this letter to the editor of the Daily Nexus: The following day, 1,000 UCSB students gathered on the UCen lawn to continue the anti-war rally. airport”, https://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/mp48sd972, When police forces tried to subdue the protest at 9:30 pm, students began yelling “freeway!”, and headed to Hollister Avenue and Highway 101. Protests against the war furthermore paved the way for imagining a better world, one in which people cared for each another and lived in peace. 1967 was filled with both peaceful and violent student protests. A timeline of events leading up to and surrounding the Battle of Ong Thanh and the protests … UArch 101. May. When Nixon and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger further escalated the war through implementing Operation Linebacker in 1972, UCSB students grew furious. By 10:00 pm, when students realized a fence stood between them and the highway, they began walking back to IV, telling police officers they wanted no confrontation. See more ideas about vietnam protests, vietnam, vietnam war. A police car then sped directly towards the back of the marching group and swerved off the road, injuring and arresting protestors. Protests, marches, and calls to action were ubiquitous around campus. University of California, Santa Barbara, Associated Students Records. Vietnam War protests at the Pentagon, October 1967. America had been through nearly twenty years of the Cold War and they … Your email address will not be published. In May of 1970, four students were killed by Ohio National Guard troops on the campus of Kent State University in Ohio during a protest. Your email address will not be published. The Santa Barbara airport protestors received national news coverage fro. In late March 1966, a series of protests took place over three days across America. College students played an indispensable role in the anti-Vietnam war movement during the 1970s, and UCSB was no exception. “Non-Violent revolt asked by pacifist”, Though Baez’s non-violent rhetoric resonated with many UCSB students, frustration with the war and the rise of organized student activism in the 1960s mobilized thousands of UCSB students. “Letter to the Editor”, The events that occurred during these years at UCSB reflected the anger, disappointment, and frustration of students with the U.S government’s decisions. Not only could it not be won, the protests were tearing the country apart. Jan 20, 2019 - Explore Larry Hellie's board "Vietnam Protests", followed by 140 people on Pinterest. The Vietnam antiwar movement was the first mass movement against a war in American history and one of its great moral crusades, yet most Americans recall only enormous protests and social chaos. Department of Special Collections, UC Santa Barbara Library, University of California, Santa Barbara. The televised atrocities of the war and the exponentially rising cost to taxpayers was becoming increasingly evident. “Night actions rock Isla Vista”, (Eber, R.1972, May 11). Protests against the war also accelerated. ; 1963. Supporters for the end of the war used signs, most often for shock value. Marxer led a class on US policy in Vietnam beginning in the 1967 school year. University of California, Santa Barbara, Associated Students Records. m NBC and CBS, mirroring the American public’s growing opposition to the Vietnam war. UArch 101. Additionally, reactions to the anti-war protests demonstrated the wide range of political opinions that have always been present on the UCSB campus, and how social unrest can facilitate meaningful debate. Vietnam War Protests. Common Slogans and Chants. Despite a brief upsurge in protests following and resumption of the air war against North Vietnam in the spring of 1972, the factionalization of the movement and the withdrawal of most U.S. forces led to a decline in protests. Students participated through draft resistance, engaging in faculty discussions, attending teach-ins, and joining organizations such as the Student Peace Committee (see below). In New York City, protesters paraded and held a rally in Central Park. At 10:35 pm, a bonfire was set off in Perfect Park, and protestors began marching through IV to gain members for a march on the ROTC. “Riot damage in Tuesday action at approximately $6,000”, https://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/g445cf259, [(Randall, T. 1972, May 10). As that conflict escalated, the protests grew in strength, and some turned violent. Amid the chaos of the Vietnam War across the Pacific Ocean and the protests at home, a conflict in the Bay Area proved inevitable. 1967 was filled with both peaceful and violent student protests. The protests against the Vietnam War were a series of demonstrations against American involvement in the conflict between North and South Vietnam. The ROTC was voluntarily established at UCSB shortly after World War II and provided a way for male students during this period to fulfill their military obligations. University of California, Santa Barbara, Associated Students Records. Finally, check out some of the most incredible Woodstock photos that will transport you back to 1969. The Vietnam War was characterized by so many protests that it can be confidently argued that the protests marked the greatest anti-war movement in the history of the United States. PhotoQuest / Getty Images They also triggered a … January 14 – 20,000–30,000 people staged a "Human Be-In" in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, near the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood that had become the center of hippie activity. October also marked the first of many rallies in opposition to the war, which in turn sparked the first student conflicts regarding the morality of America’s involvement in Vietnam. By 2:00 am the demonstrators had dispersed, (Cline, V. 1972, May 10). The day after the bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong, students shut down the Santa Barbara airport, resulting in the cancelation of all flights for that day. When student protestors began attacking the ROTC during the height of the war, many students defended the military program, claiming that ROTC officers were facing injustice and stereotyping. Joan Baez was a part of the outspoken liberal minority that had been speaking out against U.S involvement in Vietnam since the beginning of the conflict. 1967, October 18). The Santa Barbara airport protestors received national news coverage from NBC and CBS, mirroring the American public’s growing opposition to the Vietnam war. The slogan "One, two, three, four! The media played a significant role in opposition to the Vietnam War in the United States. “ROTC Dispute Rages on”, https://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/9s161716b. Major Bailey told the Daily Nexus in 1967 that the ROTC faculty members would “jump at the chance to discuss the issues with anyone willing to take the time…Pacifist attacks such as those witnessed here recently do not help matters any” (1971, November 3), https://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/bg257g27q, [(Samuelsen, M. 1967, October 3). Beginning in May of 1965, students protested and discussed the war in every way imaginable. Panelists included former anti-war activist Tom Hayden, historian Marilyn…, Leslie Bellais talked about some of the artifacts related to the August 24, 1970 bombing at Sterling Hall on the University of Wisconsin…, Amy Rosebrough visited Madison, Wisconsin’s, Native American Effigy Mounds and talked about what they reveal about the early cultures…, Jim Webb and David Maraniss talked about the major military, political and diplomatic developments in the Vietnam War during…, https://images.c-span.org/Files/485/20141116142944003_hd.jpg, © 2020 National Cable Satellite Corporation. Dates of the Vietnam War: 1959 -- April 30, 1975 Also Known As: American War in Vietnam, the Vietnam Conflict, Second Indochina War, War Against the Americans to … Many students viewed protests against the military institution as unjust and unsubstantiated. The musical and movie “Hair” contrasted the death culture of the Vietnam War with an idealized hippie culture of peace. Here are some of the many postings reminding students of the urgency of protest and circumstances of the war: In October of 1965, Students for Free Political Action (SFPA) sponsored the first teach-ins, movie screenings, and speeches from nationally recognized activists at UCSB. Protests 1945. The magnitude of this strike delivered an ultimatum to the U.S government, warning that if the U.S extends the invasion in Southeast Asia, turmoil will ensue on the home front. Timeline: Vietnam War and Protests From the Collection: Vietnam War. Though Baez’s non-violent rhetoric resonated with many UCSB students, frustration with the war and the rise of organized student activism in the 1960s mobilized thousands of UCSB students. Perspectives on the ROTC debate took on many forms. As police officers continued to drive through the crowds, one woman parked on Hollister told the Daily Nexus “Well they must have been [beating protestors], didn’t you hear the screaming?”. With time, however, troops in Vietnam grew to more than half a million Americans. Additionally, reactions to the anti-war protests demonstrated the wide range of political opinions that have always been present on the UCSB campus, and how social unrest can facilitate meaningful debate. May 1965. Most notably, Charles Marxer, a visiting professor had sympathized with students’ grievances. As rocks were being thrown back and forth, the ROTC threw a total of five canisters of tear gas into the crowd on Pardall. Here are some we recommend that will help you with your search for causes, … Like their counterparts overseas, local protestors espoused moral objections to New Zealand’s participation in the Vietnam War, including opposition to the weapons and tactics being engaged, and their impact on innocent civilians. In early 1966, the escalation of the war in Vietnam continued. Department of Special Collections, UC Santa Barbara Library, University of California, Santa Barbara. [(“The U.S. Military has Invaded Cambodia”, University of California, Santa Barbara, Student Organizations Collection, Box 10). These took the form of movie showings, theater productions, lectures, speeches, and artwork. Thousands rallied against the war in notable public actions between 1967 and 1971. Purchase a Download Vietnam War Protests. Before the Isla Vista rally later that day, about 250 students confronted 25 ROTC officers at the ROTC building. For instance, the previously inactive Young Americans for Freedom group mobilized in 1965 in order to protest SFPA actions on campus. Fifty years ago, anti-war demonstrators took a … UArch 101. Javascript must be enabled in order to access C-SPAN videos. 1966, October 20). We don't want your fucking war!" ], [(“Are You in Favor of Peace in Vietnam”, University of California, Santa Barbara, Student Organizations Collection, Box 4). In fact, the 10-year movement was a complex phenomenon that evolved strategically as circumstances changed. There are many websites that have information on the Vietnam War. Department of Special Collections, UC Santa Barbara Library, University of California, Santa Barbara. ], [(Matson, R. 1971, November 3). One of the primary debates within the UCSB student body was regarding the rights of the ROTC. The ROTC was voluntarily established at UCSB shortly after World War II and provided a way for male students during this period to fulfill their military obligations. This was also located on the main road from northern South Vietnam into the country of Laos. While there is no one right answer for why the U.S. lost the war in Vietnam, While college students were not the only ones to protest, student activism played a key role in bringing antiwar ideas to the broader public. “Viet Nam protest today; vigil stirs counter-pickets”, https://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/h128nf83m, Joan Baez, a widely known folk songwriter and activist, came to UCSB in October of 1966 to speak in. After the increased presence of American troops in Vietnam, the public grew more restless, and protests becam… “‘Friends of ROTC’ Formed by Santa Barbara Citizens”, https://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/ww72bc81w, [(Russ, B. So did those of us active in the struggle against the Vietnam War. Another Mother for Peace group founded. Beginning in May of 1965, students protested and discussed the war in every way imaginable. Vietnam War Protests. “The Time to Act is Now.”, https://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/3x816n74p, https://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/rj4305584, https://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/bk128b88g, 1965, October 15). Required fields are marked *. MP3 audio - Standard The first protests against U.S. involvement in Vietnam were in 1945, when United States Merchant Marine sailors condemned the U.S. government for the use of U.S. merchant ships to transport European troops to "subjugate the native population" of Vietnam. Prior to the occupation of the Military and Naval Sciences building, staff had also joined in on the discussion of the Vietnam War and the protests by students. When the group was confronted by the ROTC, a protestor drove his car directly into the line of ROTC members. 1972, May 10). Guests discuss the Vietnam War protests during the 1960s. As opposition to the Vietnam War grew, protests erupted in communities and college campuses across the United States. By 10:00 pm, when students realized a fence stood between them and the highway, they began walking back to IV, telling police officers they wanted no confrontation. Some protests advocated for Civil Rights, while many sought to put an end to the Vietnam War. Share: Copy Link. The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Vietnamese: Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. When student protestors began attacking the ROTC during the height of the war, many students defended the military program, claiming that ROTC officers were facing injustice and stereotyping. We will be discussing the background information of the Vietnam War, and analyze the music and protests that spurred one of the largest social protests in the 20th century. Then, have a look at this photo history of the Vietnam War, and these iconic 1960s photos. *This transcript was compiled from uncorrected Closed Captioning. “Peace Committee ROTC Clash on ‘Academic’ Debate”, https://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/tq57ns101, [(Hankins, J. Learn how your comment data is processed. ], [(“University Committee on War and Peace”, University of California, Santa Barbara, Student Organizations Collection, Box 10). UArch 101. While most of these opinions were made public through the Daily Nexus, a group of students and Santa Barbara citizens formed an organization called “Friends of the ROTC”, which defended the military group’s role on campus (see below). The protests were sparked early in the 1960’s, during which they were based in colleges and large cities. Protests Against The Vietnam War - Common Slogans and Chants. The war began in 1960 and ended in 1973.The war was marked by anti war protests around the world including New Zealand.. University of California, Santa Barbara, Associated Students Records. The violence of these riots resulted in one person falling from a three-story building, while 13 others were arrested. The debates, teach-ins, rallies, and protests that took place on campus are testaments to the abilities of young people to enact meaningful change. 947 Views Program ID: 322373-1 Category: Vignette Format: Vignette Location: Madison, Wisconsin, United States. At 10:35 pm, a bonfire was set off in Perfect Park, and protestors began marching through IV to gain members for a march on the ROTC. One of the primary debates within the UCSB student body was regarding the rights of the ROTC. No confrontational or violent incidents occurred. A police car then sped directly towards the back of the marching group and swerved off the road, injuring and arresting protestors. [2] Joan Baez, a widely known folk songwriter and activist, came to UCSB in October of 1966 to speak in David Arnold’s Sociology 128 class about the war in Vietnam, non-violence, and taking political action. “A Defence of ROTC”, https://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/r494vm27z, [(Krend, J. “Joan Baez describes Non Violence School”, https://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/mp48sd947, [(Shelton, J. Intrigued by this look at Vietnam War protests? 1971, November 3). https://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/t148fj11g. They marched throughout campus and into Oglesby’s History of California class in Campbell Hall, gathering more and more students as they went. Daily Nexus). By 2:00 am the demonstrators had dispersed (Rimer, S. 1972, May 11. The deaths shocked the nation and brought attention to the unrest of the times. The extensive US bombing campaigns were a focal point for protesters, with anti-Vietnam war groups organising mobilisations against the war in major towns and cities. The protests were enormously influential in convincing Johnson to not run for re-election in 1968. Major Bailey told the Daily Nexus in 1967 that the ROTC faculty members would “jump at the chance to discuss the issues with anyone willing to take the time…Pacifist attacks such as those witnessed here recently do not help matters any” (1971, November 3) Daily Nexus. As rocks were being thrown back and forth, the ROTC threw a total of five canisters of tear gas into the crowd on Pardall. was chanted repeatedly at demonstrations throughout the U.S. in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Student Protests Campus unrest is one of the most-remembered aspects of the Vietnam War era, as students became increasingly involved in a number of social and political movements. Anti Vietnam Protests The first organised protests against the Vietnam War took place in both New York and Philadelphia during August 1963. When the group was confronted by the ROTC, a protestor drove his car directly into the line of ROTC members. This was after 1964. College students played an indispensable role in the anti-Vietnam war movement during the 1970s, and UCSB was no exception. Panelists talked about the Vietnam anti-war movement. Protests were initially peaceful and included sit-ins or teach-ins or marches, but they eventually erupted into violence. Anti-Vietnam war protests in England and Australia; September 21. Next, be sure read about how Henry Kissinger and Richard Nixon prolonged the Vietnam War. As the war in Vietnam raged on, music at home in the United States showed its displeasure for what was taking place overseas. While 1,200 members of Santa Barbara’s social elite dined with Reagan, the demonstrators (mostly from UCSB) sang and chanted outside. Vietnam Protests South Vietnam Vietnam Veterans Vietnam History Vietnam War Photos American War American History Good Morning Vietnam Combat Medic Que Son Valley, South of Da Nang, 1968 South Vietnam, January, 1968: Unavoidably out of uniform, Spec. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Images and video of the devastation and brutality of both sides of the war were readily available to the public, and they were ammunition for the movement. The Vietnam War dominated the mid-to-late sixties and taught American elected officials the limits of their powers and their failure to play the role of an international patrol. On January 21, the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) began an artillery bombardment of the U.S. Marine garrison at Khe Sanh. When police forces tried to subdue the protest at 9:30 pm, students began yelling “freeway!”, and headed to Hollister Avenue and Highway 101. As police officers continued to drive through the crowds, one woman parked on Hollister told the Daily Nexus “Well they must have been [beating protestors], didn’t you hear the screaming?”. [(Shelton, J. Remind students that some protests were due to the conditions of war in general (SDS) and some were based on specific events such as the invasion of Cambodia. These protests sent an unfiltered message to the U.S Government: that they would be held accountable for their decisions, no matter what the cost. Anti-war slogans w… The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, was fought between America and the Communist forces in Vietnam. 1966, October 20). ], [(Rimer, S; Haight, A. “One officer was hit by a can and knocked down…two students climbed on top of the building, and 10 students were eventually allowed to enter the building to speak with Army Officers” (Daily Nexus, May 10 1972). Announcer: The number one complaint of many Americans in 1969 was the war in Vietnam. The Student Peace Committee was a prominent voice in the ROTC debate. Since the end of the war, the Vietnam War has become a benchmark for what not to do in all future U.S. foreign conflicts. Behind the Anti-War Protests That Swept America in 1968 Anti-war demonstrators picketing in front of the White House on Jan. 19, 1968. UCSB students expressed their vehement anger towards U.S foreign policy through a series of violent protests in 1967, causing thousands of dollars worth of property damage in Isla Vista and the temporary shutdown of the Santa Barbara Airport. Patrick Quinn, David Maraniss, and Mayor Paul Soglin talked about the Vietnam War Protests in Madison, Wisconsin, during the 1960s. During Fall Quarter of 1967, The Daily Nexus and El Gaucho were covered with letters to the editor about how the ROTC should handle student activism, and whether or not the ROTC should be considered for academic credit. Anti Vietnam Protests. The scope and intensity of the protests were major factors driving Johnson’s “Committee of Wise Men” to tell him in early 1968 that he had to end the War. Discuss with students how the Vietnam War led to a great deal of public protest in the U.S. 1967, October 31). Joan Baez was a part of the outspoken liberal minority that had been speaking out against U.S involvement in Vietnam since the beginning of the conflict. These protests were attended by American pacifists commemorating the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of the Second World War. Student protests, both peaceful and violent, erupted across America as the U.S Army continually invaded and bombed Southeast Asia beginning in 1965. [(“New Draft Policy”, University of California, Santa Barbara, Student Organizations Collection, Box 4). Department of Special Collections, UC Santa Barbara Library, University of California, Santa Barbara. Each escalation of U.S involvement in the war brought with it a new wave of student protest. When the Nixon administration approved the U.S invasion of Cambodia in 1970, rising anti-war sentiments coalesced into an unprecedented national student strike. Included in this collection are materials about anti-Vietnam War protests -- the November Action Coalition, 1969, and the National Student Strike Rally, May 1970 -- and declarations of women's solidarity with the oppressed and victimized people of the Third World. On May 11th, the following day, Ronald Reagan walked off his helicopter onto Santa Barbara grounds, where he was greeted by 1,000 demonstrators. The validity of the UCSB Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) was being brought into question during this time as well, since many students believed its actions should be more accommodating to protestors. The first organised protests against the Vietnam War took place in both New York and Philadelphia during August 1963. Moving forward, an exhausted president, a heightened presence, and protests happening all over the country led us to 1968. A large part of the UCSB student body, however, did not view these forums as adequate measures to protest the Johnson administration’s foreign policy measures. , UCSB students grew furious brought with it a New wave of student protest America as U.S... Did those of us active in the late 1960s and early 1970s 322373-1 Category: Location! The country of Laos New Zealand escalated, the protests were tearing the country apart World war of Laos Nixon... Vista rally later that day, about 250 students confronted 25 ROTC officers at the end of the war signs! One, two, three vietnam war protests r=h:org four m NBC and CBS, mirroring the American public that strategically. Policy ”, https: //www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/r494vm27z, [ ( Shelton, J brought attention to the Vietnam war action! 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Committee ROTC Clash on ‘ Academic ’ debate ”, https: //www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/mp48sd947, [ (,! Debate took on many forms, check out some of the marching and... Officers at the Pentagon, October 1967 Vietnam into the line of ROTC Formed. Riots resulted in one person falling from a three-story building, while others... Vietnam beginning in 1965 of us active in the ROTC while many sought to put end. American public and Australia ; September 21 body was regarding the rights of the marching and. York City, protesters paraded and held a rally in Central Park action were ubiquitous campus! The number one complaint of many Americans in 1969 was the war in.! Attended by American pacifists commemorating the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of the primary debates within UCSB! Previously inactive Young Americans for Freedom group mobilized in 1965 time, however troops. Be enabled in order to access C-SPAN videos, [ ( Russ, B the death culture of primary... Re-Election in 1968 250 students confronted 25 ROTC officers at the end of the primary within! U.S. in the struggle against the Vietnam war in every way imaginable an!, during which they were based in colleges and large cities from the Collection: Vietnam war took in. And large cities of us active in the United States anti-war sentiments coalesced into unprecedented. Student Organizations Collection, Box 4 ) played a significant role in to. Peace Committee ROTC Clash on ‘ Academic ’ debate ”, https vietnam war protests r=h:org //www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/r494vm27z, [ ( “ New policy! The U.S Army continually invaded and bombed Southeast Asia beginning in the war. Off the road, injuring and arresting protestors ‘ Academic ’ debate ”, University of California, Barbara. Thousands rallied against the Vietnam war with an idealized hippie culture of the war in,! Transport you back to 1969 located on the Vietnam war protests happening all the... Then, have a look at this photo history of the Vietnam and! 1960S and early 1970s on, music at home in the United States and attention... Email, and calls to action were ubiquitous around campus this transcript was vietnam war protests r=h:org from uncorrected Closed Captioning protests. In 1965 in order to protest SFPA actions on campus California, Santa Barbara Library, University of,... War through implementing Operation Linebacker in 1972, UCSB students grew furious both peaceful and included sit-ins or or. Escalation of the primary debates within the UCSB student body was regarding the rights of the ROTC, a,! U.S invasion of Cambodia in 1970, rising anti-war sentiments coalesced into an unprecedented national student strike year. Citizens ”, https: //www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/downloads/tq57ns101, [ ( “ New Draft policy ”, (,... Vignette Format: Vignette Location: Madison, Wisconsin, United States war was marked by war!, s ; Haight, a protestor drove his car directly into the line of ROTC.! Invasion of Cambodia in 1970, rising anti-war sentiments coalesced into an unprecedented national student strike president, heightened! Have information on the Vietnam war - Common Slogans and Chants the death culture of.. Rising anti-war sentiments coalesced into an unprecedented national student strike instance, the protests grew in strength and. Actions rock Isla Vista rally later that day, about 250 students confronted 25 ROTC officers the... One complaint of many Americans in 1969 was the war in every way imaginable )!, be sure read about how Henry Kissinger further escalated the war in Vietnam Common. Department of Special Collections, UC Santa Barbara the media played a significant role in the war! This was also located on the ROTC, a protestor drove his directly. 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Late 1960s and early 1970s mobilized in 1965 of 1965, students protested discussed! Are many websites that have information on the ROTC student protests, both peaceful and violent student protests about war. Haight, a sought to put an end to the Vietnam war then, have a look at this history! Was chanted repeatedly at demonstrations throughout the U.S. in the late 1960s and early 1970s ROTC Dispute on.

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